quarta-feira, 26 de setembro de 2012


O cangaceiro Corisco

Segundo alguns escritores do cangaço afirmam que o cangaceiro Corisco foi um dos mais sanguinário que pisou nas caatingas do nordeste brasileiro. Mas, mesmo com toda crueldade que praticava  contra civis, jamais desrespeitou moças e mulheres. 


Chegou a protestar os absurdos que o cangaceiro Zé Baiano fazia contra mulheres, e certa vez, disse-lhe que ele havia ferrado algumas mulheres, mas na sua presença, isto jamais iria acontecer, porque ele não deixaria ele praticar certas crueldades com mulher nenhuma.

O cangaceiro Zé Baiano

Depois que a Lídia resolveu amar o cangaceiro Bem-Te-Vi, sentindo-se traído, Zé Baiano enlouqueceu de vez, como se todas as mulheres eram culpadas dele ter sido traído, e a partir daí,  passou a maltratar quando encontrava uma mulher indefesa.

Mas Corisco dissera que mesmo as mulheres do seus inimigos não tinham culpas de algumas traições dos seus maridos contra cangaceiros, e por essa razão nunca violentou mulheres.  


Para os países que falam inglês
Typical house of a wealthy farmer in northeastern Brazil eighteenth century –

Prophets and Outlaws of the Sertão

Clique no link abaixo para ler a parte I

Today in the sertão[4], there are still a few ephemeral groups gathered around beatos, rapidly being dispersed by the police. There are also a few isolated bandits, mere brigands dedicated above all to theft. On the other hand, the orders of hired killers called capangas continue to proliferate. They are in the service of the fazendeiro,[5] who has taken great care to prevent any vague desire to rebel among his day laborers, mainly through pure and simple murder. This private militia gets support for its task from a police force and an army whose current means — helicopters, napalm, machine guns, radios, special troops — make any sort of social movement impossible. The security of the state is now assured in this vast arid region of northeast Brazil, which was once the place where messianic movements of great breadth developed together with the epic deeds of the cangaceiros[6].

And yet, there in the northeast, there are still people who remember the cangaceiros, Antonio Silvino, Sinhô Pereira, Lampiao, Corisco, who they imagine as champions of a lost world; people who preserve a sort of nostalgia for the time of the Conselheiro — an era of happiness, abundance and freedom comparable to the legendary times of Charlemagne’s empire and other enchanted realms. There are still those who pass down the legend of Father Cicero who is supposed to return to guide people to perfect happiness. Further south, in the serrana region, they pass down the legend of the “sleeping” friar João Maria, departing to find refuge on the enchanted mountaintop of Tayó. “From time to time, new emissaries of Brother João Maria come to announce his return; the last attempt happened in 1954. But the authorities keep watch and always manage to disperse the small gatherings of the faithful. But the memory of Brother João Maria does not seem to be close to burning out, and the places where he sojourned are venerated by his followers.”[7]

Now law reigns in the sertão, but this wasn’t always the case.

“Let the faithful, then, abandon all their worldly possessions, anything that might defile them with the faintest trace of vanity. All fortunes stood on the brink of imminent catastrophe, and it was useless and foolhardy to endeavor to preserve them.”[8]
Around 1870, the popularity of Antonio Conselheiro, otherwise called “the Counselor” would grow little by little in the villages of the interior, in the province of Bahia.

Antônio Conselheiro was born in this house in the town of Quixeramobim in the state of Ceará –

His true name was Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel. He was originally from the state of Ceará, where a dark and bloody rivalry opposed his family to the Araújo family, the most powerful property owners of the region.

He appeared there announcing the end of the world, a cosmic catastrophe followed by the last judgment. He was sent by God and promised the faithful salvation and the delights of a Holy City in which peace and brotherhood would reign. It was Christ who prophesied his coming when “at the ninth hour, as he was resting on the Mount of Olives, one of his apostles saith unto him: Lord! what signs wilt thou give us for the end of this time? And he replied: many signs, in the Moon, in the Sun, and in the Stars. There shall appear an angel sent by my loving Father, preaching sermons at the gates, making towns in the desert, building churches and chapels, and giving his counsel.”[9]

On mountains made of schist flakes sparkling with mica, on immense expanses covered with caatinga[10] — “it stretches out in front of him, for mile on mile, unchanging in its desolate aspect of leafless trees, of dried and twisted boughs, a turbulent maze of vegetation standing rigidly in space or spreading out sinuously along the ground, representing, as it would seem, the agonized struggles of a tortured writing flora.”[11] —, on the plain on which nature has fun playing with the most abrupt contrasts, frighteningly sterile, marvelously blooming, the sertão had found its prophet.

Thin, austere, ascetic, dressed in a monk’s robe and sandals, he went from village to village, distributing everything that was given to him to the poor. He was a beato[12]. Very soon he was called “Saint Anthony” or “Good Jesus” A rumor attributed miracles to him; he had saved a young girl bitten by a radical snake; mule drivers had spread the news. Little by little his prestige grew. When he came, everyone rushed to him to seek his counsel. He was accompanied in his peregrinations by a few faithful. Over the months, the group became more consistent.

With his followers, he repaired churches and built chapels. Wherever he passed, he preached forcefully against the outrages, extortions and injustices that infested the region, which was racked by political struggles transformed into vendettas, into insensitive and bloody quarrels.

Modern design that portrays Antônio Conselheiro along with his followers – Author Pedro Marques –

The Counselor’s influence had become impressive. In his harangues he spoke an apocalyptic language full of Latin quotations, a cryptic and inspired language that gave the impression that his message was from the beyond: “The end was surely coming and the great judge of all.”[13]

The prophet predicted strange things for the years to come, all announcing an imminent cosmic upheaval:

“In 1896, a thousand flocks shall run from the seacoast to the backlands; and then the backlands will turn into seacoast and the seacoast into backlands.

“In 1987, there will be much pasturage and few trails, one shepherd and one flock only.

“In 1898, there will be many hats and few heads.
“In 1899, the water shall turn to blood, and the planet will appear in the east, with the sun’s ray, the bough shall find itself on the earth, and the earth some place shall find itself in heaven.

“There shall be a great rain of stars, and that will be the end of the world. In 1900, the lights shall be put out. God says in the Gospel: I have a flock which is out of this sheepfold, and the flock must be united that there may be one shepherd and one flock only!”[14]

Only those who aided him and who followed him would be saved. He responded in this way to the deep aspirations of the poor to escape an underhanded fatality, a precarious and servile existence, oppression and desperation. His determination, his fieriness, his rage, his dynamic exhortations, had seduced them just as it had fascinated rebels, quilombolas (insurgent and escaped slaves living in hidden settlements called quilombos), unsubdued indians, all fugitives, mestizo or white, sought by village police.

Saint Sebastian had drawn his sword and when Conselheiro founded his first messianic community in 1873, in the area around Itapicurù in the province of Bahia, in many ways this recalled the cangaço[15] bands.

“There having arisen a misunderstanding between Antonio Conselheiro and his group, and the curate of Inhambupe, the former proceeded to draw up his forces as if for a pitched battle, and it is known that they were lying in wait for the curate, when he should go to a place known as Junco, in order that they might assassinate him. Those who pass that way are filled with fear at the sight of these miscreants equipped with clubs, daggers, hunting knives and blunderbusses; and woe to the one who is suspected of being hostile to Antonio Conselheiro”[16] — from a police report of the time.

The archbishop himself turned to the president of the province of Bahia, asking for reinforcements to contain “the individual Antonio Vicente Maciel, by preaching subversive doctrines who causes much harm to religion and to the state distracting people from carrying their obligations that they may follow him…”.[17].

Continuaremos sábado - 29-09-2012

Source of information 

Extraído do blog "Tok de História" do historiógrafo  e pesquisador do cangaço:
Rostand Medeiros


Por: Honório de Medeiros



6) INÍCIO DE JANEIRO DE 1927: Lampião retorna a Pernambuco; cruza Salgueiro, Leopoldina e Floresta.

7) 19 DE JANEIRO DE 1927: Lampião enfrenta, no lugar “Lagoa Queimada”, o Tenente Pedro Rodrigues.

8) COMEÇO DE FEVEREIRO DE 1927: Lampião enfrenta, no lugar “Umbuzeiro”, Termo de Lagoa do Monteiro, Pernambuco, os Tenentes João da Costa e Silva e Antônio Francisco.

9) ABRIL DE 1927: Décio Hollanda procura o Coronel Isaías Arruda para lhe pedir ajuda no ataque a Apodi, e lhe apresenta Massilon (fonte: depoimento de Mormaço e Bronzeado).

10) 10 DE MAIO DE 1927: Massilon ataca Apodi, Gavião e Itaú, no Rio Grande do Norte.

De Apodi os cangaceiros se retiraram pela manhã do mesmo dia 10, entre as nove e dez horas, rumo ao distrito de Itaú, RN.

Ali saquearam os estabelecimentos comerciais dos cidadãos Manuel Moreira Maia, Pedro Maia Pinheiro, João Alves Maia e as residências dos Senhores João Batista Maia e Paulino Pereira do Carmo (fontes: Raimundo Nonato da Silva, Raul Fernandes, Sérgio Dantas, Wálter Guerra, Marcos Pinto). Autores Intelectuais: Martiniano Porto, Décio Holanda, Benedito Saldanha, Quincas Saldanha, Tylon Gurgel. Executores: Massilon, Cajueiro, Cajazeiras, Calango, Lua Branca , Asa Branca, Rouxinol, Juriti, Limão, Júlio Porto , Miúdo, Gregório, João Pinheiro, Bronzeado , Luiz e Vicente Brilhante, José Coco, José Roque, José Pequeno e outros.

Tylon Gurgel, lider político em Pedra de Abelha, atual Felipe Guerra, e adversário do Coronel Chico Pinto, na época da invasão de Apodi por Massilon. Pedra de Abelha era distrito de Apodi.

11) DIA 12 DE MAIO DE 1927:– Lampião, que estava acampado em Porteiras, Ceará, segue viagem até a Serra do Diamante, terras do Coronel Isaías Arruda de Figueiredo.

12) DEPOIS DE 13 DE MAIO DE 1927: Massilon conhece Lampião.

Sérgio Dantas, em obra citada:

Em 11 de maio de 1927 Lampião penetrou no município de Jardim, Ceará, a légua e meia da vila de Porteiras. No dia 12 de maio segue viagem até a Serra do Diamante, terras do Coronel Isaías Arruda de Figueiredo, chefe político de Aurora e Missão Velha, no Ceará. Buscava refúgio e municiar-se. É o que nos contou o cangaceiro “Mormaço” quando interrogado em Pau dos Ferros, RN; Martins, RN; Mossoró, RN; e Crato, CE.

Em 10 de maio de 1927 Massilon tinha atacado Apodi, Gavião e Itaú. Como a empreitada fora toda orquestrada por Isaías Arruda, a pedido de Décio Hollanda, uma vez cumprido seu desiderato toma o rumo de Aurora, Ceará, aonde chega pelo dia 13 de maio para prestar contas de sua empreitada.

Cel. Chico Pinto, líder político e Prefeito de Apodi quando do ataque à cidade comandado por Massilon, a quem tinha sido encomendada sua morte

Aurora, penúltima semana de maio. Há dias Lampião já retornara da fracassada incursão à Paraíba. Finalmente – após longo périplo pontilhado de inúmeros percalços – alcançara o indevassável coito da Serra do Diamante, de Isaías Arruda.

Em dias subseqüentes, Lampião recebeu a visita de José Cardoso, parente do Coronel. Deslocara-se o fazendeiro até o valhacouto para apresentar-lhe o cangaceiro Massilon Leite.

O encontro de Lampião com Massilon deu-se em dias de maio, após o assalto a Apodi. Até aí, Lampião desconhecia completamente o novel bandoleiro. O cangaceiro Mormaço, em interrogatórios consignados nos processo-crime instaurados nas Comarcas de Martins e Pau dos Ferros, ambos em 1927, deixam claro esse particular. Também, nesse sentido, depoimento prestado por Jararaca à Polícia no mesmo ano. Todos são unânimes quanto à época do encontro.

13) 13 DE JUNHO DE 1927: Massilon ataca Mossoró, no Rio Grande do Norte.

Em 10 de junho de 1927, pelas primeiras horas da manhã, Massilon entrou no Rio Grande do Norte junto com Lampião.

Dessa data até sua saída do Estado, em 14 de junho, à boca da noite, invadiu, junto com o bando, mais de vinte fazendas, quinze sítios, o Povoado Boa Esperança (hoje Município de Antônio Martins), o Povoado São Sebastião (hoje Município de Governador Dix-Sept Rosado), e o Município de Mossoró.

Em 12 de junho de 1927, passam ao lado de Caraúbas e Lampião é advertido : Por Caraúbas, não, Capitão. Lá se encontra o Gato Vermelho.

Dizem ter sido Massilon, velho conhecido de Quincas Saldanha , o Gato Vermelho, quem deu o aviso.

14) JULHO DE 1927: Comete homicídio em Aurora, Ceará. Episódio relatado pelo escritor Amarílio Gonçalves em “AURORA HISTÓRIA E FOLCLORE”.

15) 11 DE AGOSTO DE 1927: Ataca cercanias de Alto Santo, Ceará.
16) MARÇO DE 1928: Morre Massilon em Caxias, Maranhão .
Leiam, anteriores a este texto, em


Extraído do blog do professor, escritor e pesquisador do cangaço:  Honório de Medeiros