terça-feira, 9 de outubro de 2012

Luiz Gonzaga

Por: João de Sousa Lima

Luiz Gonzaga foi homenageado pelo SESC LER de Paulo Afonso, a direção e os alunos organizaram um evento grandioso com exposições, apresentações e shows com sanfoneiros da região, além de uma palestra sobre a passagem do Rei do Baião que foi realizada por João de Sousa Lima.

O Nordeste Brasileiro, os vaqueiros com seus trajes em couro, as comidas típicas da região fizeram parte da mostra sobre o Rei.

A sanfona foi um dos itens que abrilhantou a homenagem ao Rei do Baião.

A professora Rosane Amaral foi  uma das organizadoras da homenagem.

 Alunos trajados de vaqueiros fizeram a recepção das mostras.

Rosane Amaral e João de Sousa Lima

João de Sousa Lima com alunos

Uma palestra sobre o rei do Baião foi realizada por João de Sousa Lima

Alunos assistindo a palestra sobre Luiz Gonzaga

João de Sousa Lima mostra imagens de Luiz Gonzaga  em Paulo Afonso.

Em anexo a mostra o artista Maurício Mendes expôs suas "Luminárias". Verdadeiras obras de arte que atraíram a atenção de todos.

Parte das Luminárias de Mauricio Mendes.

João de Sousa Lima e o fotógrafo Vicente

Enviado pelo escritor e pesquisador do cangaço: 
João de Sousa Lima

Atentado por Lampião!

Alcino foi entrevistado pelo programa Sergipanidade da TV Aperipê/SE.

A matéria é de 2010. Alcino Alves Costa é personalidade memorável do município de Poço Redondo. Hoje é um escritor ativo, compositor, poeta e historiador. A Equipe do Sergipanidade bateu um papo com ele, e você confere agora!

Açude: Projeto Sergipanidade no YouTube


Para os países que falam Inglês
Brazilian Army soldiers with their rifles model Comblain -

“…the jagunços then collected all the corpses that were lying here and there, decapitated them, and burned the bodies; after which they lined the heads up along both sides of the highway, at regular intervals, with the faces turned toward the road., as if keeping guard. Above these, from the tallest shrubbery, they suspended the remains of the uniforms and equipment, the trousers and multicolored dolmans, the saddles, belts, red-striped kepis, the capes, blankets, canteens, and knapsacks.

“The barren, withered caatinga now blossomed forth with an extravagant-colored flora: the bright red of officers’ stripes, the pale blue of dolmans, set off by the brilliant gleam of shoulder straps and swaying stirrups.

The fight in the backlands of Bahia –

“There is one painful detail that must be added to complete this cruel picture: at one side of the road, impaled on a dried angico[31] bough, loomed the body of Colonel Tamarindo.

“It was a horrible sight. Like a terribly macabre manikin, the drooping corpse, arms and legs swaying in the wind as it hung from the flexible, bending branch, in these desert regions took on the appearance of some demoniac vision. It remained there for a long time.

“And when, three months later, a fresh expeditionary force set out for Canudos, this was the scene that greeted their eyes: rows of skulls bleaching along the roadside, with the shreds of one-time uniforms stuck up on the tree branches round about, while over at one side — mute protagonist of a formidable drama — was the dangling specter of the old colonel.”[32]

While in the sertão the epic deeds of Canudos were sung in poems where the undertakings became legendary, in the capital the government was not able to figure it out: Canudos was an impoverished village, not even on the map, and yet it had managed to be a match for entire regiments, putting them in check. The state resorted to inventing tales of political conspiracies, but began to seriously worry. It feared that little known sertão from which men armed for revenge emerged from every province converging on Canudos to join the fight. The university student Euclydes da Cunha wrote about this: “the jagunço… could do only what he did do — that is, combat and combat in a terrible fashion, the nation which, having cast him off for three centuries almost, suddenly sought to raise him to our own state of enlightenment at the point of the bayonet, revealing to him the brilliancy of our civilization in the blinding flash of cannons.”[33]

The resolute men of the sertão had found the place for their struggle: a village of huts with the appearance of a citadel. The state was forced to face the mute and tenacious hostility of those who knew quite well what the nation demanded of them: submission and resignation. Being neither submissive nor resigned, they would not allow themselves to be dominated.
In social war, the principle of war that postulates the annihilation of the enemy knows its most complete application, its conclusion, if you will. What is at stake in wars between nations is complex. It is essentially political, as is the stake in wars of national liberation. It doesn’t necessarily require the annihilation of the enemy. Rather it aims to impose a political will on one’s adversary and to thus create through the tools of war the conditions for negotiating with him. In this case, war is the continuation of politics by other means, as Carl von Klauswitz noted. In the other case, it demands the total and definitive destruction of the enemy. What is at stake is social: the suppression or the maintenance of servitude. There is no middle course.

Note the newspaper “O Paiz”, in Rio de Janeiro, April 8, 1897, on the death of colonel Moreira César

For the insurgent, it is a matter of putting an end to his slavery and there is no compromise possible on such an essential matter. For the master, it is a matter of safeguarding his social position, his privileges, and his status. No consideration external to the war itself is thus able to impede and moderate its violence. It is war in the pure, original state; it is what it originally was, pure negativity.

In a dangerous situation like social war, errors due to hesitation, vacillation and kind-heartedness are precisely the worst of things. Every consideration external to the purpose of the war, the total defeat of the enemy, would be fatal.

Since the use of physical force in one’s interests does not, in fact, exclude the cooperation of intelligence, those who ruthlessly avail themselves of this force without backing away in the face of any bloodshed, any moral restriction will have an advantage over their enemy, if the latter does not act on the same basis.

Violence, or rather physical violence (since moral violence does not exist outside of the concept of the State and Law, whose violence is that of the victor that imposes its will) thus forms the means. The end is overthrowing the enemy.

Social war is absolute brutality that does not tolerate weakness. Ignoring this element because of the repugnance it inspires would be a waste of energy, not to mention a mistake. Showing indecision at a certain point in relation to the predetermined aim means leaving the initiative to the enemy, a mistake for which one will pay quite dearly.

There can be no negotiation. Peace is either the return to slavery or the end of slavery. Whichever it is, it is the destruction of one of two possibilities.

After the defeat of the forces under the command of Colonel Moreira César, the newspaper notes “GAZETTE NEWS”, in Rio de Janeiro, April 10, 1897, comments on the new expedition Brazilian military forces under the command of General Arthur Oscar

On April 5, 1897, General Arthur Oscar organized the forces for the fourth expedition: six brigades in two columns. Battalions were conscripted from throughout the land, for national unity, the sacred union against the internal enemy.

The two columns were supposed to converge on Canudos. The one commanded by Arthur Oscar would go by the Monte-Santo road, while the other, under the command of Savaget, would pass through Jeremoabo, coming together to launch the attack at the end of June. But as they neared Canudos, both encountered some difficulties. Savaget’s column was attacked twice between Cocorobó and Canudos. The losses were heavy, and the general was wounded. “As always, the sertanejos were taking the edge off victory by unaccountably rising up again from the havoc of a lost battle. Beaten, they did not permit themselves to be dislodged. Dislodged at all points, they found shelter elsewhere, at once conquered and menacing, fleeing and slaying as they fled in the manner of the Parthians[34].”[35]

Things got even more serious for General Arthur Oscar, who had reached the peak of Favela that overlooked the village. After a rapid victory to conquer the position, he found himself a prisoner, besieged by those he had just beaten. He had to request aid from the Savaget column. On July 1, the jagunços attacked the encampments, and some tried to reach the “Killer”, the siege cannon (a Witworth 32) that bombed Canudos. They didn’t manage to do this.

The army found itself in a critical situation. Cut off from its supplies, it could neither advance nor retreat. “At the same time the rifle fire all around made it plain to all that this was in truth a siege to which they were being subjected, even though the enemies’ lines in the form of numerous trenches were spread out laxly, in an undefined radius, over the slopes of the hill… The bold and unvarying tactics of the jagunços were nowhere more clearly revealed than in the resistance which he offered even while retreating, as he sought every means of shelter which the terrain afforded… On the one hand were men equipped for war by all the resources of modern industry, materially strong and brutal, as from the mouths of their cannons they hurled tons of steel on the rebels; and on the other hand, were these rude warriors who opposed to all this the masterly stratagems of the backwoodsman. The latter willingly gave their antagonists his meaningless victories, which served merely as a lure; but even as the ‘victor’, after having paved with lead the soil of the caatingas, was unfurling his banners and awakening the desert echoes with his drumbeats, they, not possessing these refinements of civilization, kept time to triumphal hymns with the whines of bullets from their shotguns.”[36]

Two weeks later, supplies managed to arrive and the troops launched an attack on the village. They were defeated with considerable losses. In the army and the government, there was dismay.

High command of the fourth and final expedition in Canudos. In the foreground, from left to right, the generals-Brigadier João Barbosa da Silva, commander of the first column, Artur Oscar de Guimarães Andrade, general-in-chief of the expedition, Carlos Eugênio de Andrade Guimarães, brother of Arthur Oscar and commander of the 2nd column, Major Salvador Pires de Carvalho Aragon, commander of the 5th Police in Bahia, and two officers of the 1st Cavalry regiment. Foto de Flávio de barros, 1897 –

A new brigade, the Girard brigade, was hastily formed in Queimadas, consisting of one thousand forty-two soldiers and sixty-eight officers. It set off on August 3 to supply Arthur Oscar’s army with men and provisions. On the 15th it was attacked and lost ninety-one blockheads, for which it earned the mocking epithet, the nice brigade.

The government now understood that it was no longer a question of making an assault against a village, but of organizing a genuine military campaign of several weeks, if not several months, with the aim of completely surrounding it. It understood that the war would be long and hard and that it needed to supply itself with the necessary tools.

Marshall Bittencourt was put in charge of the campaign. Two supplementary brigades arrived from Bahia and formed a division. A regular convoy service for Monte-Santo was organized. The army no longer risked being cut off from its rear and could thus be installed in a trench war. The long strangulation of Canudos had begun.

On September 7, Calumby road was opened, allowing the siege to come together.

On September 22, Antonio Conselheiro died.

Body of Antônio Conselheiro. Photo of Flávio de Barros –

The fighting resumed more fiercely around Canudos. The inhabitants discovered the spirit of initiative. With an astonishing outflanking maneuver, the skirmishes reached all the enemy’s positions, striking the entire front line, trench by trench.

At a single stroke, they unexpectedly got past every point of the front. They were beaten and driven back. Then they launched themselves against the nearest trenches. Again beaten and pushed back, they directed themselves against those that followed and went on this way. Even though unsuccessful, their assaults were unremitting, forming an immense ring-around-the-rosy dance before the troops.

“Those who, only the day before, had looked with disdain upon this adversary burrowing in his mud huts, were now filled with astonishment, and as in the evil days of old, but still more intensely now, they felt the sudden strangling grip of fear. No more displays of foolhardy courage. An order was issued that the bugles should no longer be sounded, the only feasible call to arms being that which the foe himself so eloquently gave…
“In short, the situation had suddenly become unnatural…

“The battle was feverishly approaching a decisive climax, one that was to put an end to the conflict. Yet this stupendous show of resistance on the part of the enemy made cowards of the victors.”[37]

Extraído do blog: "Tok de História" do historiógrafo e pesquisador do cangaço Rostand Medeiros

O ÚLTIMO CORONEL? - 50 anos no poder...

Por: Lúcia Rocha

O auditor fiscal aposentado, Francisco Germano Filho - Chiquinho Germano - há exatos 50 anos que jamais perdera uma eleição no pequeno município de Rodolfo Fernandes, na região oeste do Rio Grande do Norte, sofreu a sua primeira derrota, nas eleições de 2012.

Desde 1962 ele concorrera a onze eleições, vencendo em todas, porém, dessa vez concorreu a vice-prefeito, concorrendo com uma sobrinha que elegeu há quatro anos, perdendo para o candidato da sobrinha, por sinal, irmão do seu candidato a prefeito. 
Seria Chiquinho Germano o último dos coronéis a ser banido da vida pública?

A seguir (parte da entrevista), a entrevista que fiz com ele há nove anos, quando explica seu sucesso nas urnas, o pensamento, as estratégias e a convivência com alguns políticos. 

Especial para GAZETA DO OESTE
Publicado em 1º de junho de 2003

O Rio Grande do Norte assiste a uma onda de devassa por parte do Governo Federal. Guamaré e Baraúna são cidades que hospedam auditores federais em suas sedes. O que diria sobre esse fato novo na política do Rio Grande do Norte o último dos coronéis, Chiquinho Germano?
Prefeito da cidade de Rodolfo Fernandes, um homem benquisto até pelos adversários. Sendo ele uma pessoa honesta, que honra seus compromissos com o eleitorado, Chiquinho Germano apenas diz: “Não sei como é que os políticos desviam verbas. A fiscalização é rigorosíssima, a ponto de atrasar a entrega de documentação”, disse surpreso. “Muitas vezes estamos precisando da verba para não parar as obras sociais e passamos um tempão só cuidando de  documentos, pois tudo é muito difícil. Há um rigor danado e é assim que deve ser quando se trata de dinheiro público”, completa.            
A indignação parte de um homem simples que atingiu na última eleição 92% de votação. Em 1996 não houve candidato da oposição para prefeito. Elegeu-se então o primeiro vereador da oposição em toda história da cidade.  
Pode-se dizer que Chiquinho Germano não pratica o nepotismo, tão comum a políticos. A exceção foi feita em 1988, com o sobrinho, Silveira Neto, eleito prefeito naquele ano. Sua competência serviu de passaporte ocupar o cargo  de Secretário de Agricultura.   
O menino que nasceu Francisco Germano da Silveira Filho, carinhosamente chamado de Chiquinho Germano, ou seu Chiquinho, é filho de Francisco Germano da Silveira e Jacinta Queiroz da Silveira. Nasceu em Luís Gomes, Alto Oeste, em 16 de abril de 1930. Há setenta e três anos, portanto.
Aos nove meses foi para a companhia dos tios, o Juiz de Direito, dr. José Fernandes Vieira e Amélia de Queiroz, na cidade de Pau dos Ferros, tendo ali se alfabetizado.

Sila - cangaceira

Ilda Ribeiro de Sousa, a Sila, foi tomada como esposa por Zé Sereno e viveu dois anos no cangaço. 

O cangaceiro Zé Sereno

Conseguiu escapar do massacre de Angico e viveu até 2005, quando veio a falecer no dia 14 de abril em São Paulo. 

Apesar de ter ido contra sua vontade e não ter noção do que era o cangaço, Sila  acha que  não era  um movimento revolucionário, naquela época ninguém pensava assim, nem Lampião. Era o jeito de sobreviverem sem obedecer aos coronéis. Ela achava que aquilo não era vida de gente, mas não tinha saída.

O cangaceiro Lampião
Sila entrou no espírito do grupo, andava com um punhal e uma pistola "máuser" pequenininha, que dava cinco tiros, igual à de Maria Bonita. 

Mas só usou uma vez, para libertar Zé Sereno, que entrou em uma casa e um homem o derrubou no chão. Por causa do peso do armamento, quando um cangaceiro caía, era difícil levantar. Sila chegou na hora, pegou a pistola e falou: "Se não soltar ele agora, eu mato", "Depois Zé falava para todo mundo que, se não fosse eu, ele tinha morrido".

Leia a história de Sila aqui e aqui

Conheça as seis principais lendas sobre Lampião

Ivanildo Silveira, João de Sousa Lima Robervânio Rubinho

Segundo o Historiador, João souza Lima, existem seis mitos e lendas a respeito das atrocidades cometidas por Lampião, que ainda persistem. São elas:
Testículo na gaveta

Segundo o historiador, um certo dia, um sujeito estava cometendo crime de incesto e foi flagado por Lampião, que ordenou ao criminoso colocar os testículos na gaveta e fechar com chave. Lampião deixou um punhal sobre o criado-mudo e disse: “Volto em dez minutos, se você ainda estiver aqui eu te mato”.
Crianças no punhal

Conta essa lenda, que a população, com medo da fama de violento de Lampião, acreditava em todas as histórias sobre o cangaço. uma delas foi criada com o objetivo de afugentar os sertanejos que ajudavam a esconder cangaceiros. Os policiais da época espalhavam pela cidade que Lampião jogava as crianças para o alto e as parava com um punhal.

Lampião macaco

Segundo essa lenda, Lampião só conseguia se esconder na mata durante as perseguições das volantes (polícia da época), porque subia nas árvores e fugia pelos galhos das copas. O historiador conta que isso foi publicado em um livro sobre cangaço como se fosse verdade, e muita gente ainda acredita nessa história. “Quem conhece a caatinga sabe que na região onde Lampião passou e lutou não havia árvores com copas.”

Você fuma?

Outra lenda diz que Lampião teria sentido vontade de fumar e sentido o cheiro da fumaça do cigarro. Ele caminha um pouco e encontra um sujeito fumando. O cangaceiro vai até o homem e pergunta se ele fuma. O indivíduo vira para olhar quem conversava com ele e, assutado por ver que era Lampião, responde com medo: “Fumo, mas se quiser eu paro agora mesmo!”.

História do sal

É muito comum ouvir no nordeste até hoje, que Lampião chegou à casa de uma senhora e pediu que ela fizesse comida para ele e para os cangaceiros. Ela cozinhou e, com medo de Lampião, acabou por esquecer de colocar o sal na comida. Um dos cangaceiros reclamou que a comida estava sem gosto. Lampião, teria pedido um pacote de sal para a mulher, e despejou na comida servida ao cangaceiro reclamante e o forçou a comer toda comida do prato. O cangaceiro teria morrido antes de terminar de comer.

Lampião Zagueiro

Segundo o historiador, na década de 1960, uma empresa pesquisadora de petróleo no Raso da Catarina, em Paulo Afonso (BA), abriu uma pista de pouso para trazer os funcionários de outras regiões que iriam executar trabalhos de pesquisa. Sem ter encontrado petróleo, apenas algumas reservas de gás, a empresa deu por fim as pesquisas. Na década de 1970, um estudioso do cangaço teria encontrado o campo de pesquisa parcialmente encoberto pelo mato e escreveu, em livro, que aquele seria um campo de futebol construído por Lampião. “O pesquisador ainda teria reportado, de maneira totalmente infundada, que o rei do cangaço teria atuado no time como zagueiro”.

Fonte: http://bethccruz.blogspot.com